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Ten-pin bowling

Ten-Pin Bowling is a sport with a simple aim - roll a ball down a wooden pathway to knock down as many targets as possible. The game is made harder by gutters[?] that run along either side of this pathway (called the 'Lane'). If a ball falls into this gutter, no targets will be hit, and therefore no score will be acquired.

A game of 10-Pin Bowling is divided into ten rounds (called 'Frames'). In a frame, each player is given two opportunities to knock down the skittle targets (called 'Pins'). They roll their first ball at the pins. Whatever pins are knocked down are counted and scored. Then the player rolls a second ball at any remaining targets. In the event that all ten pins were razed with the first ball (a 'Strike'), they receive points and a bonus, and play passes to the next competitor. A player has no more than two balls to play in each frame (one exception applies, see below), so even if they fail to knock over any pins, after they have taken two shots, play passes to the next competitor.

The ten pins are automatically set by machine into a triangle with 5 pins in the back row, then 4, 3, 2, and finally 1 in the front, at the centre of the lane. Obviously, due to the spacing of the pins, it is impossible for the ball to strike every one, therefore a tactical shot is required, which will result in a chain reaction of pin hitting pin. In order to count, the pin must be knocked over entirely; in unlucky circumstances, a pin may wobble furiously, yet come to rest upright, thus not being scored.

Scoring

In general, one point is scored for each pin that is knocked over. So, in an imaginary game, if player 'A' bowled over 3 pins with their first shot, then 6 with their second, she would receive a total of 9 points for that frame. If player 'B' knocks down 9 pins with their first shot, but misses with their second, she would also score 9.

In the event that all ten pins were knocked over by any one player in a single frame, bonuses are awarded.

• Strike: When all 10 pins are knocked down with the first ball (called a strike), a player is awarded 10 points, plus a bonus of whatever he scores with his next 2 balls. In this way, the points scored for the two balls after the strike are scored twice.
Example:
Frame 1, ball 1 - 10 pins (strike)
Frame 2, ball 1 - 3 pins
Frame 2, ball 2 - 6 pins
The total score from these throws is: 10 + (3+6) + 3 + 6 = 28

A player who scores multiple strikes in succession would score like so:
Frame 1, ball 1 - 10 pins (strike)
Frame 2, ball 1 - 10 pins (strike)
Frame 3, ball 1 - 4 pins
Frame 3, ball 2 - 2 pins
The score from these throws is:
• Frame one... 10 + (10 + 4) = 24
• Frame two... 10 + (4 + 2) = 16
• Frame three... 4 + 2 = 6
TOTAL = 46

A player lucky enough to bowl a strike in the 10th (final) frame, is awarded two extra balls so as to allow for his bonus points. If both these balls also result in strikes, a total of 30 points (10 + 10 + 10) is awarded for the frame.

• Spare: A 'spare' (often called half-strike in England), is awarded when no pins are left standing after the second ball of a frame. ie. A player uses both balls of a frame to clear all ten pins. A player acheiving a spare is awared 10 points, plus a bonus of whatever he scores with his next ball (only the first ball is counted).
Example:
Frame 1, ball 1 - 7 pins
Frame 1, ball 2 - 3 pins (spare)
Frame 2, ball 1 - 4 pins
Frame 2, ball 2 - 2 pins
The total score from these throws is: 7 + 3 + 4(bonus) + 4 + 2 = 20

To correctly calculate bonus points can be a bit tricky, especially when combinations of strikes and spares come in successive frames. In modern times, however, this has been overcome with automated scoring systems, linked to the machines that set and clear the pins between frames. A computer automatially counts pins that remain standing, and fills in a virtual score sheet (usually displayed on monitors above each lane).

The maximum score in a game of 10-pin is 300. This is scored by bowling 12 strikes: one for each frame, and a strike with both bonus balls in the 10th frame. In this way, each frame will score 30 points (see above - scoring:strike).

Distances
Spacing
etc