Centuries: 18th century - 19th century - 20th century
Decades: 1790s 1800s 1810s 1820s 1830s - 1840s - 1850s 1860s 1870s 1880s 1890s
Years: 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 - 1848 - 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853
- Wave of communist, socialist, anarchist, and democratic uprisings throughout Europe, mostly unsuccessful
- Gold is discovered at Sutters Mill in Coloma[?], California.
- November - Zachary Taylor defeats Lewis Cass in the U.S. presidential election.
- Women hold Seneca Falls Convention in New York.
- Associated Press is founded.
- Boston Public Library is founded by an act of the Great and General Court of Massachusetts,
- First railway in Spain is opened, with line Barcelona to Mataró (circa 40 km).
- Illinois and Michigan Canal is completed.
- Independent Republic of Yucatan joins Mexico in exchange for Mexican help in surpressing revolt by Maya Indians.
- Serfdom is abolished in Austro-Hungarian Empire.
- John Bird Sumner becomes archbishop of Canterbury.
- British, Dutch, and German governments lay claim to New Guinea.
- Admiral Nevelskoi explores Strait of Tartary.
- Dunedin, New Zealand is founded.
- University of Ottawa is founded.
- University of Mississippi is founded.
- University of Wisconsin, Madison is founded.
- Geneva College in Pennsylvania is founded.
- Holmes County, Florida is created.
- Elizabeth Gaskell publishes Mary Barton anonymously.
- Henrik Ibsen publishes first play Catilina.
- Ivar Aasen publishes Grammar of the Norwegian Dialects[?].
- Robert Schumann composes opera Genoveva.
- Richard Wagner begins writing libretto that will become The Ring of the Nibelung.
Arts, Sciences, Literature and Philosophy
- January 19 - John F. Stairs, businessman, statesman (+ 1904)
- February 5 - Joris-Karl Huysmans, author (+ 1907)
- February 5 - Belle Starr, outlaw (+ 1889)
- February 8 - Joel Chandler Harris, American journalist, author (+ 1908)
- February 16 - Octave Mirbeau French art critic, novelist (+ 1917)
- February 18 - Louis Comfort Tiffany, American glass artist (+ 1933)
- February 24 - Andrew Inglis Clark, Tasmanian politician (+ 1907)
- February 24 - Grant Allen, author (+ 1899)
- February 25 - Edward Harriman[?], railroad entrepreneur
- February 27 - Hubert Parry, English composer (+ 1918)
- March 10 - Albert Fraenkel[?], physician (+ 1916)
- March 19 - Wyatt Earp[?], policeman, gunfighter (+ 1929)
- May 18 - Princess Louise of the United Kingdom[?], fourth daughter of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert
- May 23 - Otto Lilienthal[?], engineer (+ 1896)
- June 7 - Paul Gauguin, French artist
- July 6 - Gabor Baross, Hungarian statesman (+ 1892)
- July 25 - George Robert Aberigh-Mackay, Anglo-Indian writer (+ 1881)
- November 13 - Albert I of Monaco
- November 29 - John Ambrose Fleming, English electrical engineer, inventor of Fleming valve[?] (+ 1945)
- Vilfredo Pareto, economist (+ 1923)
- Marie Fyodorovna Romanova, empress of Russia (+ 1928)
- W. S. Stratton, American miner (+ 1902)
- January 19 - Isaac D'Israeli, English author, father of Benjamin Disraeli
- February 23 - John Quincy Adams, American president
- March 29 - John Jacob Astor, American businessman
- June 27 - Denis Auguste Affre, archbishop of Paris
- July 16 - Jons Jacob Berzelius, Swedish chemist
- August 12 - George Stephenson, locomotive pioneer
- November 23 - Sir John Barrow, English statesman
- November 24 - Lord Melbourne, British Prime Minister
- December 19 - Emily Bronte, author
- Edward Baines, British newspaperman, politician
- Gaetano Donizetti, Italian opera composer